Receiving from a man more and more knowledge, electronic computers are constantly improving, improve their "skills." Today, they have penetrated into many hospitals and clinics of the world, all the principles of cybernetics in the study of complex forms of life of the organism widely used.
Only at first glance it seems that in medicine and cybernetics little in common. It mathematics provides the greatest opportunity for a detailed and quantitative assessment of living systems. After all the activities of the body - it is not nothing but a constant work of many bodies. And as you know, any kind of work can be translated into the language of mathematics. It turns out that with the help of mathematical cybernetics really make a portrait of a person.
Modern physicians and surgeons have to rely increasingly on accurate knowledge of the person who receives it through numerous means of the latest technology. In order to establish the diagnosis, to appoint a course of treatment, the doctor needs to process and evaluate a lot of information is correct -.. Survey data, the results of laboratory observation and clinical examination, the characteristics curves of the activities of a body of personal examination, etc. Even with a phenomenal memory , a great experience, a doctor is not easy to cope with the analysis of all these data.
The computer, having a huge "memory" may become an indispensable assistant medical workers. Having knowledge about the human body in its memory, and received the signs of a particular disease, as well as the results of various tests, the machine is able to prove most effective in a few seconds to process the information and "give" the diagnosis, to solve the problem, what medicines or treatments. Naturally, the machine can not replace a doctor completely, but it will allow more reliably and accurately determine the cause of the disease.
In this direction, achieved encouraging results in the past couple of decades. Diagnostic machines not only save the doctor time and facilitate his work, but also to promote the use of its creative possibilities.
Of course, it is too early to talk about that in the near future will be able to equip these machines all hospitals. However, in some cases today, computers are used to produce medical records, processing of medical, laboratory and administrative data about patients.
Among the major problems include the study of the influence of environment and space flight on living organisms factors. These issues engaged special science - space medicine. On the ground, the patient is in the field of view of the doctor who at any moment may directly intervene in the course of the experiment. Another thing, when a man in space, thousands and hundreds of thousands of kilometers away from the doctor. In this case, you must not only know the details about the health of astronauts in every moment of the flight, but also be able to predict the unpleasant situation for a period sufficient to carry out the required actions. To this the doctor is given very little time - minutes and even seconds.
An integral part of the spacecraft is electronic equipment for research and medical monitoring. The independent scientific direction was issued biological telemetry, dedicated remote measurement of biological parameters: heart rate, breathing, heart beat, brain biocurrents etc. Specialists strive for facial expression, gestures, movements, speech, to get some more information about astronaut health...
Development of effective methods in space medicine is of great interest to the earth's medicine, because first of all encourage the introduction of a separate telemetry, recording devices, and computer technology into clinical practice. So space medicine, seemingly designed for space explorers, has been very earth.
And now tell you about is another area of application of new technologies in medicine. Namely the application of the laser.
Immediately after the creation of lasers spoken out a number of considerations for their use in medicine. For monochromatic laser beam, coherent and directed in one direction, the scientists speculated. Is it possible to use it during the surgery? It turned out that it is possible. Today, the laser - one of the most accurate surgical tools of modern medicine.
Peel the retina - a serious eye disease, leading to disability. For a long time we were powerless in front of the best specialists of the disease. Now the operation is successfully carried out with a laser.
Focused in the area of the retina the light beam "welds" the retina without damaging the other parts of the eye: cornea, lens, vitreous body. It uses one of the remarkable qualities of the laser - selectivity.
The same principle of selectivity has been used to treat skin diseases. The first experiments have shown that the use of a laser beam and provides good cosmetic results. On freckle sent a thin laser beam. By selecting the operating mode, it was possible to achieve the destruction of pigmented skin cells. Located between the two sections of the same white skin did not react to the laser flash.
With the development of optoelectronics converts various departments of physiology. Having optical fibers, through which light can be directed to the desired point, allows the use of lasers for operations on internal organs.
Operating looks unusual. It lacks the usual apparatus and instruments: no scalpel, surgical instruments, and no surgeon himself. They replaced the laser unit, sending powerful beams of light on the affected area. We hear only muffled shots, something vaguely resembling artillery volleys. The laser beam is very thin needle sticks into the patient's tumor, throwing out of the cell in the form of an invisible cloud. In place of the tumor first formed dry crust, which later disappears and leaves virtually no trace.